Ang Katagalugan

by eltorre




Alfonso XIII de Espana


Ramon Blanco


Gobernador Heneral 1893 – 1896


Malacanang Palace


Real Audiencia de Manila


Katipunan Initiation and Ancient Filipinos

Manga tanong sa manga may nais maging Catipon:

Sa ibabaw ng dulang na munti o mesita na siya ang pinakaaltar bukod sa may tintero’t, pluma at  papel na doon ay nakalagay na gayon ang mga nasasabi

(Upon the small table or desk, which is the high altar, there is a pen, ink, and paper on which is written the following: )

Ano ang kalagayan nitong ating lupa noong uala pa ang mga Kastila?

(What was the condition of this land of ours when the Spaniards were not yet here?)


¿Paano ang mga pasunuran ng mga tao baga mat di pa sila binyagan noon?

(How did the people become subordinated when they were not yet baptised at that time?)


Ano ang lagay nitong Sangkapuluang Filipinas ngayo’t, nasa kapangyarihan ng mga Kastila ?

(What is the condition of these Philippine Islands now, under the rule of the Spaniards?)


¿Paano ngayon ang pagpapasunuran ng mga tagalog sa kapua tagalog?

( How should the Tagalogs now follow their fellow-Tagalogs?)


Paano naman ang pagsunod ng tagalog sa mga Kastila?

(And how should the Tagalogs follow the Spaniards?)


Kung sakalit maalis sa mga Kastila itong Filipinas at mapa sa pamamahala ng tagalog na siyang tunay na may are, ¿ano kaya ang maguiguing kalagayan?

(If it happened that the Spaniards departed from the Philippines and the Tagalogs came to govern the land that is truly theirs, what would be their condition?)


¿Mag-iringan po kaya ang mga tagalog kung sila ang may boong kapangyarihan sa tunay at sarili niyang pagaare?

(Would the Tagalogs be hostile if they governed the land that is truly their own?)

The initiate was expected to answer to the first question to the effect that  the Filipinos had their own civilization before the Spaniards arrived.   They had artillery; wore clothes of silk; wore jewelries of Gold, enjoyed political liberty; maintained diplomatic and commercial relations with their Asian neighbours; and had their own religion and alphabet.   To the second question, the answer should affirm that the Spaniards, specifically the friars, had done nothing to advance the civilization of the Filipinos; indeed they saw civilization and enlightenment as incompatible with their own interests.  They taught the catechism, but offered the people no spiritual depth.   They lavishly celebrated religious festivals, but expected the people to bear the cost.    They abused their power and privileges; they were oppressors.  To the third question, about the future, the initiate should confidently predict that with faith, courage and perseverance all the country’s evils would be overcome


Illustrations of Pre-Colonial Filipinos from the Boxer Codex ( notice the Gold accessories)

Datu Lakandula

An example of a ceremonial sash worn by pre-colonial Filipinos.


  • Spain lost most of its colonies under King Alfonso XIII to America
  • It was assumed that the term “Katagaluan” not only pertained to the Tagalogs but mean those who are born in the Archipelago  (Sa salitáng tagalog katutura’y ang lahát nang tumubo sa Sangkapuluáng itó; sa makatuid, bisaya man, iloko man, kapangpangan man, etc., ay tagalog din.
  • Gobernador General Ramon Blanco was one of the last few Governor Generals under Spain to govern the Philippines.
  • The Surigao Treasure contains artifacts of the Gold Jewelry worn by Ancient Filipnos and is currently on display at the Ayala Museum.
  • For more information on the Boxer Codex:
  • For more information on the Katipunan: